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High-resolution computerised tomography (HRCT) is a high-resolution form of CT, used most commonly for interstitial lung diseases.

Radiopaedia - HRCT


Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a form of hormone therapy used to treat symptoms associated with menopause, including hot flushes and night sweats, vaginal dryness, reduced sex drive, and bone loss.

NICE Guideline (NG23) - Menopause: diagnosis and management


The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is Great Britain's independent regulator for work-related health, safety and illness. HSE also researches occupational risks, producing statistics, and enforces the law surrounding health and safety at work.

HSE website


Haemolytic-Uraemic Syndrome (HUS) is a group of blood disorders mainly affecting infants and children.Β 

HUS is characterised by low red blood cells, AKI, and low platelets. Bloody diarrhoea is a common early symptom - kidney problems and low platelets then occur as the diarrhoea is improving.Β 

Most cases occur after infectious diarrhoea due to E. coli O157:H7.



Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (UC).


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition affecting the digestive system.

NICE CKS -Β Irritable bowel syndrome


Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain.

NICE CKS - Stroke and TIA


Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull: in brain tissue and CSF.

Raised ICP signs/symptoms include headache (particularly morning headache - the headache is worse with coughing, sneezing and bending, and progressively worsens over time), vomiting, altered level of consciousness, and papilloedema.

ICP is normally 7–15 mmHg. At 20–25 mmHg (the ULN), treatment to reduce ICP may be needed (such as therapeutic LP).


Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) are synonymous.

An ICU offers 'Level 3' care, for "Patients requiring two or more organ support (or needing mechanical ventilation alone). Staffed with one nurse per patient and usually with a doctor present in the unit 24 hours per day." (reference)

An ICU is therefore used for patients with severe or life-threatening illnesses (particularly multi-organ failure) and injuries, requiring constant care and specialist equipment, monitoring, medications and interventions.


Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common form of microcytic anaemia.

IDA can be caused by chronic blood loss (including menstruation in pre-menopausal women or from the GI tract, such as in the case of bowel cancer), malabsorption of iron,Β or dietary deficiency of iron.

NICE CKS - Anaemia (IDA)

BSG Guidelines for the management of iron deficiency anaemia

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