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Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a type of cardiac arrhythmia where the heart's ventricles twitch randomly rather than contracting in a co-ordinated fashion, due to aberrant electrical activity in the ventricles.

VF results in cardiac arrest with loss of consciousness and no pulse, as the ventricles fail to pump blood around the body.

Prompt CPR and defibrillation are needed to survive VF.


Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a form of congenital heart disease where there is a hole in the ventricular septum, between the ventricles of the heart. This hole allows blood to flow from the left side of the heart to the right, meaning a large volume of blood flows to the lungs. 

A large VSD causes high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries (pulmonary hypertension) and means the left heart has to work harder than normal. This may lead to heart failure.

VSDs may close over time and not need treatment. Alternatively, surgery may be required. Pulmonary artery banding may be performed, allowing surgery to take place at a later date.


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) describes a blood clot that forms in a vein and travels to another location causing blockage. Typically VTE involves a clot from a DVT causing a PE.



White Blood Cell Count (WBC) or White Cell Count (WCC)

Normal ranges
Patient typeLower limit (x109/L)Upper limit (x109/L)
Adult4.1 - 4.510.9-11
1 year old618

Weakness / Paralysis

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The World Health Organization (WHO) is a United Nations agency, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, concerned with international public health.

WHO website

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