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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an early, non-invasive form of breast cancer.

In DCIS, the cancer cells are completely contained in the ducts and lobules and have not invaded into surrounding breast tissue. However, DCIS can transform into invasive breast cancer. DCIS is therefore surgically managed; hormone therapy or radiotherapy may be considered.

Macmillan Cancer Support - DCIS



Differential diagnosis (DDx) is the process of distinguishing a particular disease from others that present with similar clinical features.


Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans are used to measure BMD and to diagnose and monitor osteopaenia and osteoporosis.

Radiopaedia - DEXA


Diabetes insipidus (DI) is not related to diabetes mellitus (T1DM / T2DM), although shares similar signs/symptoms.

DI is a rare condition characterised by the production of large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria) and greatly increased thirst (polydipsia).

DI is caused by a problem with either the production or action of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP; also known as anti-diuretic hormone, ADH). Lack/inaction of AVP means the kidneys are unable to retain water.

There are two main forms: central DI (also known as cranial or neurogenic DI), caused by a deficiency of AVP and nephrogenic DI, caused by resistance to AVP in the kidneys (the kidneys do not respond to AVP). DI can also be related to pregnancy (gestational DI) or a problem with the body's thirst mechanism (dipsogenic DI).

Diabetes UK - DI


Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a challenging disorder faced by hepatologists.

Liver injury can result from a vast number of drugs used in clinical practice, and from a number of herbs and dietary supplements.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury EASL Guideline


Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes (triad of hyperglycaemia, ketonaemia and acidaemia), characterised by absolute insulin deficiency. DKA is potentially fatal and is a medical emergency, and it is the most common acute hyperglycaemic complication of type 1 diabetes.

BMJ Best Practice - DKA


DMARDs are disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.


The purpose of a Do Not Attempt CPR (DNACPR) decision is to provide immediate guidance to those present (mostly healthcare professionals) on the best action to take (or not take) should the person suffer cardiac arrest or die suddenly.

Resuscitation Council (UK) - DNACPR


Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are direct-acting oral anticoagulants (first called 'novel'Β oral anticoagulants, NOACs).


A digital rectal examination (DRE) is an internal examination of the rectum.

DRE is also known as a PR (per rectum/rectal) examination.

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