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D&V refers to Diarrhoea and Vomiting.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the placement of electrodes and a neurostimulator (colloquially termed a brain pacemaker) in order to deliver electrical impulses to specific brain (nuclei) targets.
DBS is used in the management of movement disorders (such as PD) and epilepsy.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an early, non-invasive form of breast cancer.
In DCIS, the cancer cells are completely contained in the ducts and lobules and have not invaded into surrounding breast tissue. However, DCIS can transform into invasive breast cancer. DCIS is therefore surgically managed; hormone therapy or radiotherapy may be considered.
Differential diagnosis (DDx) is the process of distinguishing a particular disease from others that present with similar clinical features.
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DI is a rare condition characterised by the production of large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria) and greatly increased thirst (polydipsia).
DI is caused by a problem with either the production or action of the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP; also known as anti-diuretic hormone, ADH). Lack/inaction of AVP means the kidneys are unable to retain water.
There are two main forms: central DI (also known as cranial or neurogenic DI), caused by a deficiency of AVP and nephrogenic DI, caused by resistance to AVP in the kidneys (the kidneys do not respond to AVP). DI can also be related to pregnancy (gestational DI) or a problem with the body's thirst mechanism (dipsogenic DI).
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