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The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) measures electrical activity of the heart to detect cardiac problems.


Electroconclusive therapy (ECT, previously termed electroshock therapy) involves the intentional induction of seizures by applying electricity to one (unilateral ECT) or both brain hemispheres (bilateral ECT), and is used in the management of a number of psychiatric conditions.


ED is the Emergency Department (also known as A+E, Accident and Emergency).



The electro-encephalogram (EEG) measures electrical activity of the brain and can be used to diagnose epilepsy, sleep disorders and other conditions.



Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a measure of kidney function, calculated using creatinine and patient charateristics: age, sex and ethnicity.



An EMU is an Evening Medical Update, organised by RCPE.

Upcoming EMUs

EMUs on the Education Portal


Ears, nose and throat (ENT), formally otorhinolaryngology, is a surgical specialty.


Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be used to help diagnose conditions of the liver, bile ducts, pancreas or gallbladder, although non-invasive magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound are preferred, unless there is therapeutic intent.

Through the endoscope, the inside of the stomach and duodenum can be visualised. Contrast (dye) can be injected into the ducts in the biliary tree and pancreas so they can be assessed using X-rays. Biopsies can also be taken.

Stents can be inserted during ERCP to relieve ductal blockage.


The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a non-specific measure of inflammation.