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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (UC).


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition affecting the digestive system.

NICE CKS -Β Irritable bowel syndrome


Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain.

NICE CKS - Stroke and TIA


Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull: in brain tissue and CSF.

Raised ICP signs/symptoms include headache (particularly morning headache - the headache is worse with coughing, sneezing and bending, and progressively worsens over time), vomiting, altered level of consciousness, and papilloedema.

ICP is normally 7–15 mmHg. At 20–25 mmHg (the ULN), treatment to reduce ICP may be needed (such as therapeutic LP).


Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) are synonymous.

An ICU offers 'Level 3' care, for "Patients requiring two or more organ support (or needing mechanical ventilation alone). Staffed with one nurse per patient and usually with a doctor present in the unit 24 hours per day." (reference)

An ICU is therefore used for patients with severe or life-threatening illnesses (particularly multi-organ failure) and injuries, requiring constant care and specialist equipment, monitoring, medications and interventions.


Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common form of microcytic anaemia.

IDA can be caused by chronic blood loss (including menstruation in pre-menopausal women or from the GI tract, such as in the case of bowel cancer), malabsorption of iron,Β or dietary deficiency of iron.

NICE CKS - Anaemia (IDA)

BSG Guidelines for the management of iron deficiency anaemia


Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the heart's inner lining (the endocardial surface), which may include valves and chordae tendineae.

BMJ Best Practice - Infective endocarditis


IFG is Impaired Fasting Glycaemia/Hyperglycaemia. Like IGT, IFG is known as 'prediabetes'.

IFG is defined as a fasting plasma glucose between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/L (source: NICE).

IFG is managed by lifestyle intervention.


Like IFG, IGT is a form of 'prediabetes'.

The current WHO diagnostic criteria for IGT are: a fasting plasma glucose of less than 7.0 mmol/L and a 2-hour venous plasma glucose (after ingestion of 75 g oral glucose load) of 7.8 mmol/L or greater, and less than 11.1 mmol/L. (source: NICE)

IGT is a strong risk factor for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and therefore IGT is managed using lifestyle change Β± medication.


Interstitial lung disease (ILD) refers to a group of diseases affecting the lung interstitium (the tissue and space around the alveoli).

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