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Liver function tests (LFTs) assess the functioning of the liver, by measuring levels of proteins, enzymes, blood clotting ability, and waste products in the blood.


Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is an anticoagulant used in VTE prophylaxis and management, and in the management of ACS.

LMWH is derived from unfractionated heparin (UFH), but does not require APTT monitoring and has more predictable pharmacokinetics (with a longer half-life) and anticoagulant effect. LMWH less commonly causes heparin-induced thrombocytopenia than UFH.

LMWH is cleared renally.


Lumbar puncture (LP, colloquially termed spinal tap) obtains a CSF sample for analysis and is also used in the management of conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

LP is a sterile procedure, performed by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.