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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to minor difficulties with cognition (mental abilities such as memory or thinking) that are worse than would normally be expected for a healthy person of that age.

Symptoms are not severe enough to interfere significantly with daily life.


The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is responsible for protecting and promoting public health and patient safety by ensuring that medicines, medical devices and blood components for transfusion meet appropriate standards of safety, quality and efficacy.

MHRA website


Myocardial infarction (MI, commonly termed heart attack) describes necrosis (death) of myocardial tissue (heart muscle) due to ischaemia (an inadequate supply of blood to the affected tissue) - typically due to sudden blockage by a blood clot. 

CHD is a leading cause of MI.


The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), not to be confused with the MSE, measures cognitive impairment and is used to assess severity and progression of cognitive impairment. The MMSE can be used to help diagnose and monitor dementia. It takes 5-10 minutes to administer.

The MMSE tests a number of mental abilities, including memory, attention and language. - MMSE


Motor neurone disease (MND) is a group of rare neurodegenerative conditions that progressively damage the motor neurones. Messages from the motor neurones gradually stop reaching voluntary muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of MND.

MND is life-limiting and there is no cure.

MND Association - What is MND?



Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare genetic form of diabetes caused by a mutation in an autosomal dominant gene disrupting insulin production. MODY is also known as monogenic diabetes. There are many forms of MODY, depending on the gene affected.

MODY affects around 1-2% of people with diabetes.

The charity Diabetes UK lists the key features of MODY as: being diagnosed with diabetes under the age of 25; having a parent with diabetes, with diabetes in two or more generations; not necessarily needing insulin.

MODY - Diabetes UK


Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (MRCP(UK))

RCPE information on MRCP(UK)



Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging modality, particularly useful for soft tissues, which does not involve ionising radiation.

Radiopaedia - MRI


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease: the insulating cover of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord (myelin) is attacked by the body's immune system.

There are three main types of MS:

  • Relapsing-remitting: isolated attacks (relapses) are followed by recovery (remission)
  • Secondary progressive: starting as relapsing-remitting, this type later progressively worsens without remission
  • Primary progressive: a steady worsening from the onset, without remissions.

Signs/symptoms are unpredictable, but can include fatigue, optic neuritis and other visual disturbance, weakness of limbs, pain, bowel and bladder problems, and sexual problems.




The Mental State Examination (MSE) is used to assess a patient's emotions, thoughts, and behaviour. Present mental state informs differential diagnosis and can allow risk assessment. 

Student BMJ article on MSE

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