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Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving intervention for cardiac arrest.

How to do CPR



The Care Quality Commission (CQC) is the independent regulator of all health and social care services in England.

The CQC monitors, inspects and regulates hospitals, GP practices, hospices, care homes and other services including mental health, dental care and the ambulance service.

CQC website


Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colourless fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

CSF can be obtained by lumbar puncture (LP). LP can determine intracranial pressure and CSF analysis (colour, cell contents, chemical composition, presence of pathogens) can help to diagnose a number of neurological conditions.



Computerised tomography (CT, as in CT/CAT scan) uses several X-ray images and computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the body.

Radiopaedia - CT


CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is a commonly performed diagnostic test to exclude PE (acute or chronic), which uses CT angiography to obtain an image of the pulmonary arteries.

Radiopaedia - CTPA


Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a diagnosis for a metastatic cancer (a cancer that has spread) with an unclear site of origin (the original 'primary' cancer is unknown).



Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is synonymous with stroke.


The Chest X-ray (CXR, more accurately chest radiograph) is a common radiological investigation used to diagnose conditions affecting the lungs and chest.

An erect CXR (a CXR taken when the patient is standing) may be used to confirm diagnosis of bowel perforation.

Radiopaedia - Systematic chest radiograph assessment (approach)



D&V refers to Diarrhoea and Vomiting.


Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the placement of electrodes and a neurostimulator (colloquially termed a brain pacemaker) in order to deliver electrical impulses to specific brain (nuclei) targets.

DBS is used in the management of movement disorders (such as PD) and epilepsy.

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