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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be used to help diagnose conditions of the liver, bile ducts, pancreas or gallbladder, although non-invasive magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound are preferred, unless there is therapeutic intent.

Through the endoscope, the inside of the stomach and duodenum can be visualised. Contrast (dye) can be injected into the ducts in the biliary tree and pancreas so they can be assessed using X-rays. Biopsies can also be taken.

Stents can be inserted during ERCP to relieve ductal blockage.


The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a non-specific measure of inflammation.


Fair dealing

There is no statutory definition of fair dealing and, in a court of law, use would be judged on a case-by-case basis.

‘Fair dealing’ includes the use of works for illustration for instruction and quotation. Works made available to the public can be used for criticism and review.

In essence, ‘fair dealing’ means use is limited to only the minimum necessary amount of content for its purpose (reasonable and appropriate to the context) and use does not negatively impact on the market for the original works. Copying should not harm the copyright holder, financially or otherwise.

Further reading from The University of Manchester Library


The Full Blood Count (FBC, also termed Complete Blood Count, CBC) provides information on the cellular contents of the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells (e.g. WBC) and platelets.


Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is made from the liquid portion of whole blood. 

FFP is used to replace low blood clotting factors or low levels of other blood proteins, and can be used to treat TTP.


The Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT), also termed Quantitative Faecal Immunochemical Test (qFIT), is used in bowel cancer screening.

qFIT uses antibodies that specifically recognise human haemoglobin and is therefore more sensitive and specific than the older guaiac-based FOB test.

Macmillan Cancer Support - FOB test and FIT test


Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally-invasive biopsy procedure to acquire tissue, cell or fluid samples.

FNA is often guided by USS.

Radiopaedia - FNA


The faecal occult blood (FOB) test detects small amounts of blood in faeces, and is used in bowel cancer screening.

FOB is being replaced by FIT.

Macmillan Cancer Support - FOB test and FIT test


The two foundation years (FY1 and FY2) form the initial post-graduate training for doctors in the UK.




Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a long-term condition that causes anxiety about a wide range of situations and issues, rather than one specific event.

Disproportionate, pervasive, uncontrollable, and widespread worry leads to a range of somatic, cognitive, and behavioural symptoms (Hoge, Ivkovic and Fricchione, 2012; NICE CKS).

Other anxiety disorders include PTSD and OCD.


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