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PERLA means pupils equal and reactive to light and accommodation.

PEARL means pupils equal and reactive to light; PERRLA means pupils equal, round and reactive to light and accommodation.


Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive, nuclear medicine imaging technique (similar to SPECT), providing metabolic and functional information.

PET is often combined with CT or MRI.

Radiopaedia - PET

Radiopaedia - SPECT vs. PET


Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs if the foramen ovale, a hole between the heart's atria made in normal foetal development, does not close after birth as it should.

PFO is common, affecting about 1 in 4 people. 

PFO can increase risk of ischaemic stroke, because thrombi (blood clots) can pass from the right to the left side of the circulation and more easily reach the brain - normally small thrombi are filtered out by the lungs.


View all Pharmacology content


Public Health England (PHE) exists to protect and improve the nation's health and wellbeing, and reduce health inequalities.

PHE is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care, which provides the government, the NHS, Parliament, industry and the public with evidence-based professional, scientific expertise and support.

PHE Website


Pelvic inflammatory disease/disorder (PID) is an infection of the female upper genital tract, including the uterus, Fallopian tubes and ovaries. In about 1 in 4 cases, STI is the cause.

PID can lead to a number of complications including infertility and ectopic pregnancy. 

Prompt and effective treatment with antibiotics is important (after STI screening), of both the affected female ± recent sexual partner(s). 


Planetary Health

View all Planetary Health content


Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory condition which presents with aching and morning stiffness in the neck, shoulders, and/or pelvic girdle (hips and thighs) in people older than 50 years of age.

PMR is frequently associated with GCA.



Point-of-Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) refers to USS performed at the patient's bedside (or wherever they are - in the ED, in a GP practice, or in an ambulance, for example), as opposed to in a dedicated radiology department.

Radiopaedia - PoCUS Curriculum


Personal protective equipment

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