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Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is a medication used in the prophylaxis and treatment of angina and the management of anal fissures, amongst other indications.



Genitourinary medicine (GUM) involves the investigation and management of STIs and HIV.



Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is an infection acquired in the hospital or other healthcare setting.

Examples include catheter-associated infections and HAP.


Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is an example of a nosocomial infection. HAP is a new pneumonia arising two or more days after admission to hospital.

NICE Guideline (NG139) - Pneumonia (hospital-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

BMJ Best Practice - HAP


Hospital-Based Complex Clinical Care (HBCCC) provides hospital care (nursing and medical input) for patients who cannot be looked after anywhere else due to their frailty and complexity. The medical input should involve consultant geriatrician input as well as day to day input which varies between facilities (some GP, some specialty or junior doctor).

Criterion for eligibility is "cannot be looked after anywhere else" as assessed by consultant geriatrician. Eligibility should be reviewed every three months, and patients who no longer meet the criterion should be moved on (usually nursing home).


The high-dependency unit (HDU) offers a level of care (Level 2) between ward-level (Level 1) and ICU-level (Level 3).

A HDU is for "patients needing single organ support (excluding mechanical ventilation) such as renal haemofiltration or ionotropes and invasive BP monitoring. They are staffed with one nurse to two patients." (reference).



Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder that leads to abnormal blood vessel formation:

  • Telangiectasia: in the skin and mucous membranes (red or purple spots under the skin)
  • Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): in organs such as the lungs, liver and brain

The most common problem is nosebleeds (epistaxis), acute GI blood loss, and chronic GI blood loss, leading to IDA.

Management may include iron supplementation, blood transfusion, laser treatment for telangiectasia and embolisation or surgery for AVMs.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) damages cells in the immune system. Once acquired, HIV persists for life. There is no cure, but antiretroviral drugs can control infection and stop transmission to others. HIV can be transmitted in a number of ways, all of which are preventable.

HIV can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Sexwise - HIV

NICE CKS - HIV infection and AIDS


The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a hormone-based system that regulates the body’s reaction to stress.

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