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The British National Formulary (BNF) is a UK pharmaceutical reference source (publication/App) that contains information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology for medicines available on the NHS.


The BNF for Children (BNFc) is the paediatric version of the adult BNF.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate gland (benign prostate enlargement, BPE) common in elderly men. BPH can cause a number of LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms), such as increased frequency and poor stream.

NICE CKS - LUTS in men


Beats per minute


Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is an inner ear disorder.

BPPV causes repeated, brief periods of vertigo with movements such as turning in bed or changing position. N&V are common.

Diagnosis can be made with the Dix–Hallpike test and BPPV can be treated with the Epley manoeuvre.


View all Breathlessness content


Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow" disease) causes variant CJD.



Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of unusual vaginal discharge (white/grey with a characteristic fishy smell) due to an imbalance of bacteria in the vagina.

BV is not an STI, but increases the risk of developing an STI.

BV is treated with antibiotics.



A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), commonly termed heart bypass surgery, involves creating an alternative channel to improve blood flow to the heart when a coronary artery is blocked.


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a pneumonia developed by a person with little contact with the healthcare system - in contrast with HAP.

NICE Guideline (NG138) - Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

BMJ Best Practice - CAP

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