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A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), commonly termed heart bypass surgery, involves creating an alternative channel to improve blood flow to the heart when a coronary artery is blocked.


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a pneumonia developed by a person with little contact with the healthcare system - in contrast with HAP.

NICE Guideline (NG138) - Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

BMJ Best Practice - CAP


Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is a form of dialysis which happens throughout the day/night, in which the person drains and exchanges their own fluid. 

During CAPD, dialysis fluid is left in the peritoneal cavity for 4-6 hours to allow waste products from the blood to accumulate. The fluid is then drained out. Fluid can be left overnight.

The other form of peritoneal dialysis is APD.

CAPD is an example of RRT.



View all Cardiology content


Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social 'talking therapy' focussing on how your thoughts, beliefs and attitudes affect your feelings and behaviour. CBT teaches coping strategies.

Patient.info - CBT


Congestive cardiac failure (CCF, or congestive heart failure, CHF) refers to combined left and right heart failure.


Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) organise the local delivery of NHS services in England.

CCGs consist of groups of (nearby) GP practices which come together to commission the best services for the patients and population in their local area.

CCGs commission services (including mental health services, urgent and emergency care, elective hospital services, and community care) for their local community from any service provider that meets NHS standards and costs (including NHS hospitals, social enterprises, voluntary organisations or private sector providers).

Source: NHS - CCGs


Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) confirms that a doctor has completed an approved training programme in the UK and is eligible for entry onto the specialist register (or GP register).

CESR provides an alternative route to the specialist register.

RCPE information on CCT



The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a public health institute of the United States.


Certificate of Eligibility for Specialist Registration (CESR) provides a route for doctors who do not hold a Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) to gain entry onto the Specialist Register.

RCPE information on CESR

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